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Which is the pathogen causing powdery mildew in mulberry?

The pathogen causing powdery mildew is Phyllactinia corylea a fungal pathogen belonging to Ascomycetes

 

Which is the season when powdery mildew is prevalent in mulberry?

The disease generally prevalent during the winter season (October-January)

 

What are the pre disposing factors for the incidence of powdery mildew?

Low temperature (20-27°C) and moderate humidity are optimum for infection and development of powdery mildew.

 

Is there any biological control agent for powdery mildew?

Yes, the Coccinellid predators such as Illeis indica, Illeis cincta and a fungal hyper parasite Cladosporium sp. are reported as biological control agents of Phyllactinia corylea

 

How the powdery mildew of mulberry is spread?

In the favourable condition, the fungi Phyllactinia corylea produces small asexual bodies called conidia. These conidia disperse through wind and thereby spread the disease

 

Is there any mulberry variety resistant to powdery mildew?

Yes, the mulberry variety MR2 is highly resistant to powdery mildew.

 

What are the symptoms of powdery mildew of mulberry?

White circular powdery patches appear on the lower surface of the leaves. On the concomitant upper surface shows yellow chlorotic lesions. The white powdery patches turn to brownish-gray black in the later stage; leaves turn yellowish, leathery and ultimately defoliate prematurely are the symptoms of powdery mildew

 

Which are the fungicides recommended for the control of powdery mildew?

Bavistin (Carbendazim 50WP) and Sulfex (Sulphur 80 WP) are the fungicide recommended for the control of powdery mildew.

 

What is the dose of Bavistin recommended for the control of powdery mildew?

The dosage of Bavistin recommended for the control of powdery mildew is 0.2%.

 

What is the dose of Sulfex recommended for the control of powdery mildew?

0.2% is the dosage of Sulfex recommended for the control of powdery mildew.

 

How to prepare 0.2% Bavistin solution?

0.2% Bavistin solution can be prepared by mixing 2 grams of Bavistin in one liter of water.

 

How to prepare 0.2% Sulfex solution?

0.2% Sulfex solution can be prepared by dissolving 2 grams of sulfex in one liter of water

 

Which is the active ingredient of Bavistin? And what is its percentage in Bavistin?

Carbendazim is the active ingredient present in Bavistin. Bavistin contains 50% Carbendazim

 

What is the name and percentage of active ingredient of sulfex?

Sulphur is the active ingredient present in Sulfex. Sulfex contains 80% Sulphur.

 

How Phyllactinia corylea overwinter?

With the onset of unfavourable condition, ie., with the increase of atmospheric temperature, the fungi produce fruiting bodies known as cleistothecia. These cleistothecia fall along with the dried leaves in the soil and during the next favourable condition these cleistothecia break open and ascospores are released. These ascospores cause new infections.

 

What is the causal agent of leaf rust disease of mulberry?

Cerotelium fici, a fugal pathogen belonging totheorder, Uridinales is the causal pathogen of leaf rust disease of mulberry in India.

 

Generally in which season the leaf rust disease occur in mulberry?

The leaf rust disease generally found during the winter months in India (October- January).

 

What are the symptoms of leaf rust disease of mulberry?

The pathogen produces numerous pin head like circular to oval brownish eruptive lesions on the lower surface of the leaves. As the disease becomes severe, the leaves become yellow and wither off prematurely.

 

How the leaf rust disease is spread in the mulberry field?

The leaf rust disease spread through uredinospores which disperse by means of water droplets or wind.

 

What are the favourable conditions for the infection of rust in mulberry?

22-26°C atmospheric temperature and high humidity are the favourable conditions for spread of leaf rust disease in mulberry.

 

What are the cultural practices to be followed for control of leaf rust disease?

In order to reduce the rust disease in the mulberry field, the plantation should be made with wider spacing. The plants should be uniformly pruned and avoid over maturing of the plants. Keep the garden free from plant debris.

 

What is the recommended chemical control measure for rust disease of mulberry?

Foliar spray of 0.2% Kavach (Chlorothalonil 75%) is recommended for the control of leaf rust disease of mulberry.

 

After spraying Kavach for the control of leaf rust disease, how many days to be waited for harvesting the leaves for silkworm rearing?

The leaves could be utilized for silkworm rearing after two weeks.

 

Where the fungicide Kavach is available?

Generally Kavach is available in pesticide shops of India.

 

Which are the common leaf spot diseases of mulberry in India?

Leafspot caused by Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora moricola), Tar spot (Myrothecium roridum) and Grey spot (Pseudocercospora mori) are the common leaf spot diseases of mulberry in India.

 

Which leaf spot disease is common for mulberry in Southern part of India?

The leaf spot caused by Cercospora moricola is very common in southern part of India

 

How Cercospora moricola spread?

The Cercopsora moricola generally spread through rain splash.

 

What are the pre disposing factors for the infection of Cercospora leaf spot?

A moderate temperature of 24-28°C and high humidity are the favourable conditions for infection and spread of Cercospora moricola leaf spot in mulberry.

 

What are the symptoms of Cercospora spot disease of mulberry?

Presence of small brownish irregular spots on the leaves in the initial stage, the spots unite to form larger spots in the later stages. Presence of yellow hallo region around the spots. The spots show necrotic regions and the tissues fall off and form shot holes.

 

What is the chemical control measure to be taken for the control of leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora moricola?

The leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora moricola can be controlled by the application of 0.2% Bavistin (Carbendazim 50 WP).

 

How many days to be waited after spraying the Bavistin for utilizing the leaves for silkworm rearing?

The leaves can be utilized for silkworm rearing 7 days after application of 0.2% Bavistin.

 

Whether Bavistin is frequently available? and where?

The fungicide Bavistin is available in most of the pesticide shops in India.

 

Is Bavistin a systemic fungicide?

Yes, Bavistin is a systemic fungicide.

 

In which season the Cercospora moricola leaf spotis prevalent?

The Cercopsora moricola leaf spot is prevalent in the rainy and post rainy season (June – December).

 

What are the symptoms of Tar spot (Myrothecium roridum) disease of mulberry?

Presence of irregular dark spots on the leaves, presence irregular wholes due to falling off of dead tissues, presence of white tiny sporodochia and black spores on the lower surface of the leaf, yellowing of the leaves and pre mature defoliation are the symptoms of tar spot disease of mulberry.

 

Which part of India tar spot of mulberry is more common?

The northern part of India especially West Bengal, Jarkhand, Orissa are the places where tar leaf spot disease of mulberry is very common.

 

The tar spot is common in which season?

The tar spot caused by Myrothecium roridum is very common during the rainy season.

 

How do Tar spot spread?

The Myrothecium leaf spot spread through conidia carried by rain droplets.

 

How do the tar spot of mulberry differ from Cercopsora leaf spot?

Though both the leaf spot disease looks similar, the leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum is irregular in shape while the leaf spot caused by Cercospora moricola is regular in shape they are smaller in size with a visible yellow halo margin. Further in case of Myrothecium leaf spot, small white sporodochia are visible on the necrotic area on which conidia are seen. The conidia formed in black wet mass in case of Myrothecium roridium.

 

How tar spot of mulberry can be controlled?

The tar spot can be controlled by the application of 0.2% Bavistin.

 

Is tar spot can be biologically controlled?

Few bacterial species such as Bacillus lentimorbus, B. cereus and B. pumilus are reported to control the disease. However large scale trials are not been reported and hence not recommended.

 

Which are the mulberry varieties reported resistant to tar leaf spot?

Kajli, Jatinuni, Morus cathayana, Almora local, Bogura -1, Meergund-6, Fernodias, Punjab local, M. tiliafolia, Sulthanpur, Golaghat, Bush malda-A, Sujanpur are the few mulberry varieties reported resistant to tar spot disease.

 

What are the symptoms of grey leaf spot (Pseudocercospora mori) disease of mulberry?

The disease cause necrotic spots on the leaves, which become brittle resulting in shot hole, leaf yellowing and defoliation. The spots are indistinct on upper surface, more conspicuous on the lower surface where they are brown, angular or spreading (particularly along leaf margins) and restricted by the larger veins are the symptoms of grey leaf spot.

 

What are the predisposing factors that favour infection and spread of grey leaf spot disease in mulberry?

Atmospheric temperature of 25-30°C and humidity 85-90 favoure the disease development. The disease infection was found higher during the growth period 48-55 days of the shoot.

 

How we can control grey leaf spot?

The disease can effectively be controlled by foliar spray of 0.1% Carbendazim Bavistin (Carbendazim) - a broad spectrum systemic fungicide.

 

What is the characteristic symptom of fungal leaf blight in mulberry?

Burning of leaves at the leaf tip and become brownish are the symptoms of fungal leaf blight in mulberry

 

Which is the pathogen that causes fungal leaf blight in mulberry?

Alternaria alternata is the fungal pathogen causing fugal leaf blight in mulberry.

 

What are the predisposing factors for fungal leaf blight in mulberry?

Longer periods of dew and higher relative humidity above 95% are favorable factors for development of the disease.

 

How we can check the fungal leaf blight disease?

The disease can be checked by removing plant debris from garden plots and then tilling the plot and also by pruning off the over matured shoots.

 

What is the chemical control measure for Alternaria leaf blight?

The disease can be controlled by applying 0.2% Indofil M45. A second spray may be done if the disease is more severe.

 

After how many days after the leaves can be utilized for silkworm rearing after application of 0.2% Indofil M-45?

The leaves can be utilized 14 days after the spray of 0.2% Indofil M-45.

 

Which are the pathogens causing bacterial leaf blight disease of mulberry?

Pseudomonas syringae pv. mori and Xanthmonas campestris pv. mori are the pathogens generally causing bacterial leaf blight of mulberry.

 

Which are the seasons favourable for the infection and development of bacterial blight disease in mulberry?

The bacterial leaf blight diseases are more prevalent during rainy and winter seasons.

 

Which are the plant parts more prone to bacterial blight disease?

Tender leaves and shoot tips of mulberry are more prone to bacterial blight diseases

 

What are the symptoms of bacterial blight disease of mulberry?

Numerous blackish brown irregular water soaked patches appear on the lower side of the leaves and shoot tips resulting in curling and rotting of leaves. The water soaked spots later turns to tiny black spots.

 

What are the predisposing factors for the development of bacterial blight disease in mulberry?

Atmospheric temperature of 28-30 ºC and humidity above 80% are the favourable conditions for development of bacterial blight disease in mulberry.

 

What are the cultural control measures to reduce the bacterial blight disease?

Follow wider spacing of plantation (90 cm x 90 cm) or paired row planting system [(90 +150) × 60 cm] reduces the disease.

 

What is the chemical control measure for the control of bacterial blight disease of mulberry?

Spraying 0.2% Streptomycin or Indofil M-45 on the leaves reduces the disease effectively.

 

Which is the causal pathogen of mulberry root knot disease?

Meloidogyne incognita a soil nematode is the root knot causing pathogen of mulberry

 

What are the symptoms of root knot disease of mulberry?

Severely affected mulberry plants shows stunted growth with low water moisture in leaves, later yellowing of leaf margins. In the underground, the root knots/ galls can be seen. These root galls are spherical and vary in size; young galls are too small and yellowish-white in colour, old galls are big and pale brown.

 

What are the predisposing factors of root knot disease of mulberry?

The disease spreads primarily through contaminated soil, farm implements and run-off irrigation. Planting of infected saplings along with other susceptible crops increases the disease intensity, some susceptible weeds in and around the mulberry gardens act as the secondary sources of infection. Temperature ranging from 27-30 ºC, soil moisture less than 40 % and pH 5-7 are favorable for the development of root knot disease.

 

What quantity of Neem oil cake is to be applied for control of root knot disease in mulberry?

2MT of Neem oil cake is to be applied in 1 ha of mulberry garden in four split doses. i.e. 8 kg per acre/ year in four split doses.

 

What are the cultural methods to control root knot disease of mulberry?

The mulberry plantation should be deep digged and the soil should be exposed to sun light to kill the nematode eggs.

Plant marigold (Tagetes patula) as intercrop at distance of 30 cm in between mulberry rows.

Apply neem oil cake @ 2 mt/ha/yr in 4 split doses during fertilizer application/ cultural operation

 

Which are the three stages of in the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita?

Egg, larvae and adult are the three stages of life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita.

 

Which stage of female larvae enters in the mulberry roots?

The second stage of female larvae enters in the roots of mulberry.

 

How many moults the female nematode larvae undergo inside the mulberry root?

The female nematode larvae undergo four moults inside the mulberry roots.

 

What are the favourable conditions for root knot nematode infection in mulberry?

The soil temperature from 15-30°C and soil moisture from 40-60% are more favourable for nematode growth. The disease is very common in sandy soil under irrigated condition.

 

What causes root rot disease of mulberry?

Fungi and bacteria are the organisms that cause root rot disease of mulberry

 

Which are the fungi generally cause root rot disease in mulberry?

Rhizoctonia bataticola, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botryodiplodia theobromae are the fungi reported to cause root rot disease of mulberry in India.

 

What is the name of fungi causes violet root rot in mulberry?

Helicobasidium mompa

 

What are the symptoms of root rot disease in mulberry?

Initially the above ground symptom of the disease appears sudden withering of plants and leaves fall off from the bottom of the branches and progressing upwards. The below ground symptoms include decaying of root cortex or skin,  turn black due to fungal spores/ mycelium below the bark.     The severely affected plants loose the hold in the soil and can be easily uprooted. On severity, the entire root system gets decayed and the plants die. Affected plants after pruning, either fail to sprout or the plant sprouted bears small and pale yellow leaves with rough surface.

 

What are the factors that influence the occurrence and spread of root rot disease in mulberry?

The disease occurs in soils of high temperature (28 - 34ºC), low moisture (below 40 %) and low organic matter. The disease spreads primarily through contaminated soil, farm implements and irrigation. The secondary source of infection is through diseased saplings, irrigation and cultivation practices. These are the factors that influence the occurrence and spread of root rot disease in mulberry.

 

What are the cultural methods to control root rot disease of mulberry?

Cultural methods such as plough the infested land deeply and expose the soil to hot sun for effective killing of the pathogens.  Also application of sufficient quantity of organic manure to the affected soil controls the disease.

 

What are the chemical methods to control root rot disease of mulberry?

  • As soon as the initial symptoms like wilting/ withering of leaves appear on shoots, apply Indofil M-45 around the root system @ 10 g/ plant after removing the soil from the infected plants to a depth of 15 cm.
  • If the disease is very severe, uproot the affected plants and burn. Apply 10 g of Indofil M-45/pit in the diseased pit and plant the new sapling after dipping the root system in Indofil M-45 solution for 30 minutes. 
  • Also apply Indofil M-45 to the surrounding plants of the diseased patch.
  • Apply four doses of Indofil M-45 in a year at an interval of 3 months. 

 

What is Navinya?

Navinya is a target specific plant based formulation used for the control of root rot disease of mulberry. Navinya is more economical, which reduces the cost marginally.

 

How to apply Navinya for control of root rot disease of mulberry?

Prune and remove the dried shoots to base of the stump above 15-30 cm from ground level. Remove small quantity of soil around the collar region and apply the Navina solution. To prepare the Navinya solution, add 10 g of Navinya  powder to 1 liter of water and stir well (1 kg Navinya in 100 liter; sufficient for 100 plants @ 1 liter/plant). Pour the solution over the pruned stump to drench completely up to the ground level. Cover with soil around the stump to prevent exposure to sunlight and irrigate immediately. Treat the neighboring surrounding mulberry plants also to prevent the spreading of the disease.

 

What are the precautions to be taken after application of Navinya?

  1. Do not irrigate the treated mulberry plants during the first 4-5 days.
  2. Plant the new saplings after dipping their roots in 0.2 % Navinya solution for 30 minutes before planting.
  3. Treat plants showing symptoms such as blackening the leaf and withering the shoots immediately to save from dying.
  4. Maintain optimum organic content >0.5% in soils by applying compost manure.
  5. Irrigate the plants immediately after application of Navinya and do not irrigate for 3 days after that.

 

Where Navinya is available? 

In India, Navinya is available in the outlets of Nandi Agro Vet, Bangalore in Karnataka        (M: 09449016259) and Rainbow Agro-Vet Seri Technologies, Pvt. Ltd., Kadapa in A.P (M: 09848477199). The cost of the product is 350-400/kg.

 

How deep digging and ploughing help for control of nematode infection?

Due to deep digging and ploughing, the soil is up-tilted and hence the nematode larvae and eggs will be exposed to the sunlight and killed.

 

How the nematodes are spread from infected mulberry fields to new fields?

The nematodes will spread from infected field to the un infected fields through saplings, irrigation water, farm implements etc.

 

What is the quantity of neem oil cake to be applied for nematode control in mulberry?

About 2MT of neem oil cake to be applied in 1 ha of mulberry garden in four split doses in a year to control root knot disease in mulberry.

 

What are fungicides?

The fungicides are chemicals which can kill the fungus and thereby control the fungal infection.

 

Why the fungicides to be sprayed during cool hours? 

During the cool hours, the wind will be less and the spread of fungicide solution to the nearby gardens and to the body of the person who is spaying the fungicide could be avoided.

 

What are systemic fungicides?

The systemic fungicides are the fungicides which will enter in the system of the plant and act against the fungal infection irrespective of the part of fungal infection.

 

How many liters of fungicidal solution is required for one acre?

Generally 200 liters of fungicidal solution is required to spray one acre of mulberry garden.

 

What are the precautions to be taken before spraying the fungicides?

  1. First identify the disease through symptoms and choose the recommended fungicide for the control. 
  2. Never transport fungicides with food items.
  3. Select a suitable sprayer and check its working condition.
  4. Wash the equipment with 0.5 % washing soda solution.
  5. Mix the fungicide solution well before pouring in to the tank.
  6. Do not mix the fungicide by hand and always use rod/stick for mixing.
  7. Carry always one or two extra nozzles during the spray.
  8. Inform the owners of adjacent gardens the fungicide spraying.

 

What are the precautions while spraying fungicides?

  • Do not allow children and persons having wounds for spraying.
  • Wear protective devices such as goggles, gloves and apron during spraying.
  • Do not blow the nozzle with mouth and use needle for cleaning.
  • Choose cool hours (early morning or late evening) and avoid sunny hours for the spray.
  • Do not spray against the wind current and during rainy days.

 

What are the important things to be done after spraying the fungicides?

  • Wash the hands with soap or take bath before taking food.
  • Keep unused fungicide safely out of the reach of children.
  • Harvest mulberry leaves for feeding silkworms after safe period of the applied fungicide.

 

Which are the important diseases that affect the mulberry nursery saplings?

Stem canker, stem rot, collar rot and die back are the major diseases, which affect mulberry at nursery stage. Stem canker and stem rot affect sprouting of the cuttings, while collar rot and die back appear at sapling stage

 

What are the symptoms of the nursery disease stem canker?

Greenish-black eruptions on stem cuttings. The bark or the outer skin of the stem cutting die and rot, which result in non-sprouting of the cuttings are the symptoms of stem canker.

 

Which is the causal organism of the mulberry nursery disease stem canker?

Botryodiplodia theobromae   is the causal organism of stem canker

 

What are the symptoms of nursery disease stem rot?

Rotting of the whole stem cutting and decay of bark result in death of the sprouted cuttings are the symptoms of stem rot.

 

Which is the causal organism of stem rot of nursery saplings?

Fusarium solaniis the causal organism of stem rot of nursery saplings.

 

What are the symptoms of collar rot of mulberry nursery saplings?

Appearance of brown or black discoloration of the bark and rotting of cuttings near the soil zone i.e., collar region of cutting are the symptoms of collar rot disease of mulberry nursery saplings.

 

Which are the pathogens generally cause collar rot in mulberry?

Phoma sorghina, P. mororum,  P. exigua, Sclerotium rolfsii are the fungal pathogens which cause collar rot of mulberry saplings in nurseries.

 

What are the symptoms of die-back disease of mulberry saplings in the nursery? 

The saplings start wilting from the shoot apex and progress downwards resulting in death of the saplings is the symptom of die back disease of mulberry saplings in the nursery. 

 

Which is the causal organism of die-back disease of mulberry nursery?

The causal organism of die-back disease of nursery saplings of mulberry is Botryodiplodia theobromae.

 

What are the predisposing factors for the incidence and development of nursery diseases in mulberry?

  • The nursery diseases spread through improper water drainage system and poor aeration in the soil. The primary infection occurs through contaminated soil and through cut ends of the stem cuttings, which are not treated with suitable fungicides. And secondary infestation takes place by poor maintenance and care of nursery in the field.
  • Temperature of 26- 28 ºC, soil moisture below 50 % and soil pH 6 - 8 are more favorable development of diseases in mulberry nurseries.

 

What are the cultural control measures to evade diseases in mulberry nursery?

  • Deep ploughing and exposure of soil to sunlight for about a month kills the soil borne pathogens, keep the land leveled to avoid water logging.  
  • Keep the land free from weeds during establishment of the saplings/ plants.

 

How we can avoid nursery diseases by chemical means?

  • Prepare 0.1% solution of Indofil M-45 by mixing 1 g in 1 litre of water.
  • Keep the cuttings immersed in Indofil M-45 solution for 30 minutes. 
  • Plant the soaked cuttings in nursery beds followed by irrigation after 3-4 hours.

 

What is soil solarisation how it is done?

Soil solarization is a practice used to manage weeds, nematodes, diseases and insects in soil especially in the mulberry nursery. The soil surface is covered with clear plastic, which allows sunlight to pass through and heat up the soil to temperatures that are lethal to many of these pests. Following are the steps for soil solarisation.

1. Dig the garden bed to a depth of 20 - 30 cm, pulverize and level.

2. Water the surface to a depth of 15 - 20 cm.  

3. Cover the entire surface of the garden with clear plastic (0.04, 0.06 mm).

4. Seal all sides by covering the edges of the plastic with soil or pieces of lumber/wood.

5. Keep the plastic in place for 10-15 days. During this period, the weed seeds will germinate and, through the intense heat of the sun, will gradually be killed. After this, remove the plastic cover and apply compost and other soil supplements and incorporate into the soil to a depth of 10- 15 cm, level the garden bed and plant the mulberry cuttings.

 

What are Trichoderma?

 Trichoderma spp., are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. They are highly interactive in root, soil and foliar environments. They produce or release a variety of compounds that induce localized or systemic resistance responses in plants. Trichoderma strains have long been recognized as biological agents, for the control of plant disease and for their ability to increase root growth and development, crop productivity, resistance to abiotic stresses, and uptake and use of nutrients.

 

Whether Trichoderma is available commercially in the markets? 

 Yes, commercial formulations of Trichoderma are available in the name of Sanjibani, Guard, Niprot and Bioderma. These formulations contain 3x106cfu per 1 g of carrier material.

 

How to apply Trichoderma formulations?

 For soil treatment, mix 1kg of Trichoderma formulation in 50kg of farmyard manure and cover it for two weeks days with gunny cloth. Turn the mixture in every 3-4 days interval and then broadcast in the field.

 

end faq

 

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